Not a race, but much more than a religion, the Jewish People is often described as being at the center of a triangle consisting of one God, the Land of Israel, and their sacred text, the Bible.
The Bible has been the source of the great impact this small people (numbering approximately 13 million) have made on world culture and faith. Its first five books are known as the Torah, which means teaching, a term that has expanded to include an enormous amount of Jewish wisdom transcribed over the centuries. However, for many Jews, their teachings are distilled into one commandment, first uttered by a Jewish sage some 2,000 years ago: “Do not do unto others what you would not have them do unto you.”
The Bible contains the Ten Commandments (in the biblical book of Exodus 20:1-13), moral teachings including, among others, not only prohibitions on murder and stealing, but also the commandment to keep a weekly day of rest, the Sabbath, a hallmark of Jewish faith and culture, and the commandment to honor one's father and mother. The Bible is the foundation for the teachings of Jesus and Christianity and for the New Testament.
Over the centuries, Jews added the Talmud to their sacred texts. This is a commentary on the Bible that developed mainly after the Jewish People were exiled from their homeland of Israel (see below) yet struggled to maintain connections to each other, to God, and to their land. Learning Bible and Talmud, and study in general, became an important element of Jewish culture, as did the ancient Hebrew language of the Bible, which was renewed in modern times.